Topical cosmetics are among the most consumed perorations worldwide. In this study, we explored the prevalence of cosmetics usage and examined some of the most common topical cosmetic products in terms of organoleptic properties, microbial load plus heavy metal impurities (Fig.   4 ). This study showed that the participants used at least 5 products daily (Fig.   2 ). These preparations are intended to be in contact with several parts associated with the skin; thus, they can serve as vehicles for transmitting many pathogenic organisms two . The skin has defensive mechanisms that can protect the body from external matter; therefore, complete sterility is not essential for cosmetics. However, there is a threshold limit of microorganisms that can be handled by the skin 9 . This is especially true when cosmetics are applied around the eyes, on injured skin, on children under the age of three, upon elderly individuals, and on compromised individuals.

Figure 4
figure 4

Graphical summary associated with this research.

The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is a nonprofit organization composed of scientists from diverse professions who assess the security of cosmetic components 16 . According to the SCCS ‘Notes of Guidance for Testing associated with Cosmetic Ingredients and Their Safety Evaluation, ’ the particular microbial count must not exceed 100 (cfu)/g or ml for the items intended for children under 3 years or the products intended to be utilized in the eye area or mucous membranes. However , the microbial count number should not surpass 1000 cfu/g for other products.

Moreover, the US FDA microbiological limits in makeup products specify that will the total number of organisms per gram or milliliter generally must not exceed 500 cfu/g with regard to eye-area products and those regarding children <   3 years old, whereas the acceptable limit for all other topical ointment cosmetics is ≤  1000 cfu/g.

Both the SCCS and FDA consider the presence of opportunistic pathogens ( Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), S. aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ) or even Candida albicans ( C. albicans )) to be associated with significant concern.

Our results (Fig. 3 ) showed that both of the tested baby products exceeded the particular SCCS permitted limit. This is crucial since babies have a weak immune system, allowing the pathogen to easily enter their system if the particular skin will be damaged 17 . This syndrome starts with irritability, fever, malaise, plus a highly sensitive rash that appears within 24–48 h. Furthermore, our study found that this makeup powder, hair cream and hair oil serum also exceeded the control, with microbes loads associated with 1161. five cfu/ml, 1467. 5 cfu/ml and 1128 cfu/ml, respectively (Table 2 ).

In this research, 14 samples of the tested items showed microbial contamination. S. aureus was the most prominent microorganism found in 12 of the samples. In alignment with the study results, published studies have detected H. aureus as the main isolated microorganism in a variety of cosmetics items, in addition to some other microorganisms, such as Candida, Rhodotorula, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aerug inosa and Alcaligenes nine , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 . T. aureus is a normal pores and skin microorganism, but it may also act as an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a variety of epidermis and soft tissue infections 23 . Eczema, acne, erythematous rash plus other skin infections can result from contaminated product usage 24 . The presence of S i9000. aureus in eye products can trigger infection in order to the exterior and internal tissues from the eye, including the tear duct, cornea conjunctiva, and posterior chambers, triggering profound damage that may lead to blindness 25 .

The other detectable microorganism that was found inside 10 examined product samples was Bacillus species. Bacillus species are usually transient skin microflora. The particular group Bacillu s cereus is really a Bacillus genus subdivision that will currently includes eight formally recognized closely genetically related species that may cause focal necrotizing cellulitis in the particular skin nineteen . Bacillus cereus contamination may lead to serious vision infections. This is especially true intended for cosmetics that are used on the eye or near the attention, as present in this study in the makeup natural powder. This might be attributed to how powders easily come into contact with air and contain ingredients from a natural sources, like talc within the formulation, which might increase the contamination level 19 . A published research showed that a Bacillus cereus with a microbial load as low as 100  cfu/ml caused infection in a susceptible animal model 26 . Abscesses, bacteremia/septicemia, wound and burn bacterial infections, ear infections, ophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, plus respiratory and urinary tract infections have all been linked to Bacillus species. The majority of these diseases arise as secondary or mixed infections in immunocompromised individuals, but a high proportion are primary bacterial infections in healthy people 27 . In this study, we investigated the particular products as soon as they were opened, yet contamination was still found in some of the tested items. Most makeup products are multiuse items that will must retain low levels of contamination during consumer usage, which means that their preservation mechanisms must be efficient against contaminants that come into touch with the product after it has been opened 25 .

Heavy metal contaminants in cosmetics is another serious issue. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act issued by the US suggests limitations for some heavy metal impurities in makeup, such as lead, arsenic and chromium 28 . The maximum recommended limit of Pb as an impurity inside cosmetics is usually 10  ppm. Cosmetic lip items (such as lipsticks, lip glosses, and lips liners) plus externally applied cosmetics (such as eyesight shadows, blushes, shampoos, and body lotions) are covered by this guidance. The US FDA furthermore limits the particular presence associated with Pb in cosmetic additives to 20  ppm. Our results demonstrated that 6 of the tested cosmetic products exceeded this particular limit, plus the highest value of Pb, 78. 31  ppm, was found in sample 20 (toothpaste). Similarly, a study that investigated the same product and brand found out but used atomic absorption spectrophotometry present that Pb exceeded the recommended restriction with a value of 23. 57  ppm 29 . In our study, all of us found that toothpastes had been among the particular top most contaminated items which are utilized daily (Fig.   2 ). The particular accumulation associated with Pb by using lead-containing cosmetics regularly can result in serious side effects 30 . These side effects can vary through abdominal pain, headache plus loss of appetite in order to more complicated manifestations, for example brain damage, renal dysfunction and paralysis 31 , 32 . Pregnant women may experience miscarriage or premature birth and give birth to babies along with low birth weight 33 .

The ALL OF US FDA has also set the limit for Cr in cosmetic makeup products additives in order to 50  ppm, and most of our examined cosmetic products exceeded this limit. Within agreement with this finding, a study that tested nine associated with the majority of expensive brands of mascara and eyes shadow from the Saudi market found the level of Cr was higher than the acceptable limitation in an eyeshadow product along with a value of 7000  ppm 34 . Digestive, pores and skin and ocular problems are usually associated with high exposure to Crystal reports 35 .

Arsenic is limited to 3 ppm in beauty products additives simply by the US FDA, plus our examined cosmetic items exceeded this particular limit within samples 12 (makeup powder), 13 (makeup mousse cream), 14 (mascara), 15 (deodorant), 18 (lipstick), 19 (toothpaste), and 20 (toothpaste). The highest concentration associated with As has been found in sample 19 (toothpaste) (221. 96 ppm). Long-term exposure to arsenic might result in skin conditions such as lesions and skin, bladder and lung cancers 36 .

Since there are no limits set for additional metals in cosmetics, such as Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, plus Zn, the united states Pharmacopeia chapter < 232> has established acceptability metallic impurity criteria for drug products. Even though these types of guidelines are meant to get drugs within different dosage forms, they may be relevant in order to avoid undesirable consequences. For example, Cd as a good elemental impurity should be limited to 0. 5 ppm, where in our tested aesthetic products, samples 1 (sunblock cream), 15 (deodorant), nineteen (toothpaste), and 20 (toothpaste) greatly surpassed this restrict (Table a few ). The continued use of cadmium-contaminated products may cause heart diseases, hypertension, kidney plus liver harm, and a weak defense mechanisms 37 .

The USP limits Co as an elemental impurity to 5 ppm, wherein tested cosmetic item samples twelve (makeup powder), 14 (mascara), 19 (toothpaste), and twenty (toothpaste) go beyond this limit, and the greatest value (22. 71 ppm) was detected in test 12 (makeup powder). Similarly, other beauty products surpass the 5 ppm limit, such as an eyeliner (11. 80 ppm) 38 . Long-term contact with cosmetic products that are contaminated with Company may result in skin irritation 13 Ni should not exceed 20 ppm according in order to the USP. Interestingly, most of the tested aesthetic products in this study exceeded this restrict, and the particular highest value was recognized in trial 19 (toothpaste). The major issue with nickel is allergic contact dermatitis, which can be a serious issue pertaining to patients with chronic eczema 39 , 40 . The only metal degree that did not surpass the USP limit in any of the examined samples was Cu. This particular elemental impurity should become limited to 300 ppm, and all tested cosmetic products were below this value.

Unfortunately, there are no stated FDA or USP limits for various other metals, like aluminum, iron, zinc, plus manganese. Short exposure to lower amounts of manganese may lead to erythema and dermatitis, while chronic exposure has been linked in order to neurological disorders, for example loss of coordination and balance, forgetfulness, anxiety, and insomnia 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 . In this study, the highest concentrations of Mn and Fe were discovered in example 14 (mascara). Similarly, Aldayel et al. 34 investigated nine of the particular most expensive brands associated with mascara and eyeshadow from the Saudi market plus found how the concentration of Fe has been high in the wimperntusche products. Moreover, frequent use of cosmetic makeup products that consist of aluminum has been connected to neurological problems such because Alzheimer’s disease, but the exact mechanism is definitely unknown forty , 44 . According to studies, high exposure to Zn, and Cu may lead to the interaction between them that can lead to abnormal Zn metabolism, so the balance between Zn plus other nutrients could be destroyed 45 .

The greatest levels of Ing and Zn with this study were detected in small sample 19 (toothpaste) and structure 20 (toothpaste), respectively. Inside alignment along with this outcome, Al and Zn concentrations were high in different brands of toothpaste thirty-one , 46 .

Based on our examined cosmetic items, the maximum levels of Pb, Cr, As, Ni, Zn, Al impurities were discovered in toothpaste. Interestingly, our results showed that toothpaste was the particular most frequently used cosmetic product in both sexes (Fig. two ). Therefore , both the quality and protection of cosmetics preparations should be more rigorously regulated.

Although there are some legal criteria to consider during products manufacture, this particular study demonstrated that these regulatory procedures are not completely effective. Tests are required by authoritative agencies to ensure the basic safety and high quality of beauty products or even ingredients before they are put on the market. Moreover, the raw materials must be selected and dealt with properly simply by manufacturers.

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